Acceptance The approval, typically by aclient or user, of a project deliverable.

Access Control The ability to manage which users or groups of users may have the privilege to retrieve, create, update, or delete data held in a repository, such as a relational database.

Activity A set of tasks related either by topic, dependencies, data, common skills, or deliverables. The next level of organization below a phase.

Actuals Information gathered during a project concerning the actual amount of time, finances or resources expended on a task.

Applied Business Technology (ABT) A company that manufactures tools to profile, estimate, and plan projects. Oracle Services has a global licensing agreement with ABT. Oracle Method makes use of Project Workbench, Methods Architect, and Project Bridge Modeler as its worldwide methods and project management software standard; see also PROJECT BRIDGE MODELER and PROJECT WORKBENCH.

Approach A variation or subset of a method, packaged in order to efficiently support the delivery of a service; see also TECHNIQUE. G – 2 Glossary PJM Method Handbook


Baseline 1. A starting point or condition against which future changes are measured. 2. A named set of object versions which fixes a configuration at a particular point in time. A baseline normally represents a milestone or

key deliverable of a project; see also CURRENT BUSINESS BASELINE.

Billable Project Expenses The project expenses that are billable to a client; see also PROJECT EXPENSES.

Billable Utilization The utilization that is billable to a client; see also UTILIZATION.

Bottom-Up Estimate A task-level estimate derived by calculating the estimating factors critical to completion of each task; see also ESTIMATING FACTOR.

Budget A plan for determining in advance the expenditure of time, money, etc.


Change A deviation from a currently established baseline.


Change Request 1. A request for a change to the required behavior of a system, usually from a user as a result of reviewing current behavior. 2. The mechanism by which a change is requested, investigated, resolved and approved; see also IMPACT ANALYSIS.

Completion Criteria Standards or rules which determine completion of a task to an acceptable level of quality.

Configuration A named set of configuration items. Configurations are used to hierarchically organize onfiguration items in order to facilitate their management; see also CONFIGURATION ITEM.

Configuration Change The implementation of one or more change requests which leaves the configuration in an internally consistent state; see also IMPACT ANALYSIS.

Configuration Item A deliverable or deliverable component which is placed under configuration management.

Configuration Management The process of managing hardware, software, data, and any other documentation needed during the development, testing, and implementation of information systems.

Consulting Grade Level A grade level assigned to Oracle Services consulting resources used to calculate the cost of a resource’s labor; 1-Administrative Assistant to 10-Regional Vice President.

Contingency Work effort allotted in a workplan for all unforeseen but possible occurrences of additional work.

Contribution Margin see MARGIN AMOUNT and MARGIN PERCENTAGE.

Controlled Document A document which constitutes or represents a project deliverable for approval internally or by the client, and is subject to change control.

Cost The amount allotted or spent to acquire, deliver or produce anything, for example, the cost of labor to deliver consulting services, the amount spent on incidental costs to deliver consulting services, the amount spent on hardware, software, etc.


Critical Path Method (CPM) Network A network diagram that shows tasks, their dependency links, and their critical path. CSI see CPU SUPPORT IDENTIFICATION.


Deliverable Something a project must produce in order to meet its objectives. A deliverable must be tangible and measurable. Deliverable Component A part or section of a deliverable. A deliverable component may be the output of a task step.

Deliverable Guideline A detailed description of a deliverable that includes: detailed description, usage, audience, and distribution, format guidelines, control, template, and samples; see also DELIVERABLE.

Deliverable Template A tool designed to aid in production of a deliverable; a template that gives the format and structure of a deliverable; see also DELIVERABLE.

Dependency 1. An indication that one task cannot begin until another task has ended, or progressed to a certain specified level of completion; see also PREDECESSOR and SUCCESSOR. 2. A relationship between two

modeling elements, in which a change to one modeling element (the independent element)

will affect the other modeling element. (UML 1.1 Semantics)



Effort The amount of work, measured in person-hours, to perform a task.

Estimate A preliminary calculation of the time and cost of work to be undertaken. The construct option calculates estimates using bottom-up, percent adjustment, or top-down techniques in Project Bridge Modeler; see also


Estimated Function Point Count 7 Function Points per System Entity + 5 Function Points

per System Function.

Estimating Factor (EF) A metric that describes an important project characteristic, used to estimate either the amount of effort that project tasks will take, or project risk or complexity. The best EFs are those that represent counts (number of users, objects); see also BOTTOM-UP ESTIMATE.

Estimating Formula A formula that uses estimating factors to derive an estimate for a task. G – 4 Glossary PJM Method Handbook

Estimating Guideline Text which describes in detail how a task is estimated.

Estimating Model The combination of estimating factors and estimating formulas necessary to completely estimate a route.

Expense The amount of money allotted or spent to cover incidental costs (e.g. travel and living) or the cost of something (hardware, software, etc.) to deliver consulting services.

Expense Reimbursement Expenses for reimbursement by the client either allotted or received.


Fee A charge, compensation, or payment for a service or product.



Function Point Analysis (FPA) A technique used to estimate system size. Using Function Point Analysis, you can calculate system size based on the number of functional element types in the system you are building, as adjusted by its general system characteristics and your technology productivity factor; see also FUNCTIONAL ELEMENT TYPE.

Function Point Estimate (FPE) An estimate of work effort produced using Function Point Analysis or an equivalent method.


Gantt Chart A scheduling tool used to display the status of a project’s tasks. A Gantt chart shows each task’s duration as a horizontal line. The ends of the lines correspond to the task’s start and end dates.

Guideline Text that provides instructions and advice for performing a task and suggests possible approaches.


Healthcheck Review The project deliverable with components completed by an external and independent consultant to assess the project’s progress with respect to plan and objectives.


Impact Analysis The process of understanding the complete effect of a particular change; see also CHANGE REQUEST.

Information Systems (IS) A system for managing and processing information, usually computer-based. Also, a functional group within a business that manages the development and operations of the business’

information systems.


Issue A situation or concern which requires a resolution. Some issues, if not addressed, could adversely impact the success of a project. Oracle Method Glossary G – 5

Issue Resolution Management An Oracle Method sub-process and associated tools providing an efficient and effective means of documenting and resolving scope control changes and issues during the life of a large

project or program. This sub-process does not support software configuration management.

Iterated Task A task that is repeated once for each iteration in order to increase the quality of the deliverable to a desired level or to add more detail to the deliverable. Iterated tasks are shown as discrete in the workplan; see also TASK, ITERATION, and ONGOING TASK.

Iteration Indicates the number of times or degree to which a task or task group should be repeated, in order to either increase the quality of the task/group deliverables to a desired level, to add sufficient level of detail, or to refine and expand them on the basis of user feedback. A task or group may be “singly iterated” (the expectation is that it will

be performed without repetition in the project), or “multiply iterated” (it will be performed successively, multiple times), resulting in a single deliverable for each task (note this is not true for multiply instantiated tasks). For multiple iterations, it is important for planning purposes to give notes on the number of times or the degree to which a task or group should be iterated, based on experience; see also ITERATIVE BUILD, ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT, and INCREMENT.

Iterative Build Iterative construction of an information system by means of a cycle of code (or generate), test, review, starting from a prioritized (MoSCoW) list of requirements and guided by user feedback; see also MOSCOW LIST.

Iterative Development The application of a repeating cycle of the same or similar activities performed on the same piece of functionality that improves or grows into completion through the iterations; see also INCREMENTAL EVELOPMENT.



Key Deliverable A major deliverable that is usually reviewed with the client, signed off (but not necessarily), and placed under change control; see also DELIVERABLE.

Key Resource A person with a wide range of skills or experiences who can be effective in many types of tasks, or is critical to the completion of a specific task.


Labor Cost see COST.

Labor Cost Rate The rate (internal cost) for each consulting grade level for delivering services to a client.

Labor Fee see FEE.

Labor Fee Rate The rate (price) for each consulting grade level charged for delivering services to a client.


Management The process of planning, controlling, and completing the execution of an undertaking. G – 6 Glossary PJM Method Handbook

Margin Amount The difference between the costs (labor, expenses, and overhead) and revenue plus expense reimbursements expressed as a currency amount.

Margin Percentage The ratio between the margin amount and costs, expressed as a percentage.

Method 1. A system of doing things and handling ideas. A method establishes a network of common tasks, a vocabulary, a set of common processes, estimates, and guidelines for delivering services. 2. The implementation of an operation. It specifies the algorithm or procedure that effects the results of an operation (UML 1.1 Semantics).

Multiply Instantiated Task A task that may be performed at various times during a project, such as status reports or healthchecks, or a task that is partitioned on a project plan, for example, by multiple teams or functional areas.

Multiply Occurring Task A task that is repeated at specific, known times during a project. A multiplying occurring task is similar to a multiply interated task, except the specific occurrences of the task can be planned at the method level. Each occurrence has specific task dependencies which determine when it occurs.


Non-Billable Project Expenses The project expenses that are not billable to a client; see also PROJECT EXPENSES.

Non-Billable Utilization The utilization that is not billable to a client; see also UTILIZATION.



Ongoing Task A task that occurs continuously throughout a project, rather than at a specific known time. Ongoing task are shown as continuous on the workplan; see also TASK, PHASE and ITERATED TASK.

Oracle Method (OM) Oracle Services’ integrated service methodology which consists of workplans, handbooks, and templates used to provide enterprise business system solutions.

Oracle Services An Oracle Corporation business organization that provides professional services.

Overhead The operating expenses associated with delivering services, such as rent, light, heat, taxes and non-billable utilization.

Overhead Factor A rate multiplier associated with a category of overhead, e.g., Corporate, Division, or Practice; see also OVERHEAD.


Payment Milestone A significant project event at which time a payment is due. Payment milestones can be progress points, dates, the completion of a task or the production of a deliverable.

Payment Terms The terms and conditions upon which payments will be received from a client.

PBM see PROJECT BRIDGE MODELER. Oracle Method Glossary G – 7

Phase A chronological grouping of tasks in an approach. Services are delivered by phase in order to reduce project risk. Each phase allows a checkpoint against project goals, and measurement against quality criteria to be made.

Phase Control The project management tasks which execute concurrently with phase execution, and perform project monitoring, directing, and reporting functions during a phase.

Phase Execution The method execution tasks performed during a project phase.

Phase Management The project management tasks required to plan, control and complete the execution of a project phase.

Phase Planning The project management tasks which update project plans and procedures for a phase and secure additional resources necessary to execute that phase.

Plan A scheme, method or design for the attainment of some objective or to achieve something.

Predecessor A task that precedes another task and is related to it by a task dependency; see also SUCCESSOR.

Prerequisite Something needed by a task, which is produced by a previous task or an external source; see also DELIVERABLE.

Problem A perceived variance between the expected and observed ability of an item to fulfill its defined purpose.

Problem Report The mechanism by which a problem is recorded, investigated, resolved, and verified.

Process 1. The sequential execution of functions triggered by one or more events. 2. A discipline or sub-project that defines a set of tasks related by subject matter, required skills and common dependencies. A process usually spans several phases in an approach. Examples are: Data Conversion, Testing, Documentation; see also BUSINESS PROCESS and SYSTEM PROCESS.

Program 1. A set of coded instructions that a computer executes or interprets to perform an automated task. 2. A interrelated group of projects that are either being run concurrently or sequentially and that share a system goal. Individual projects may have different goals, however the combined set of projects will have a program goal.

Project Bridge Modeler (PBM) Applied Business Technology tool used to build the project planning and estimating system. PBM allows project managers to select, edit, combine, and create project workplans or

routes, that best fit the needs of the client.

Project Completion The third and final part of the PJM project life-cycle. The satisfactory conclusion of the project and settlement of all outstanding issues prior to hand over of the project deliverables to the client.

Project Earned Value A measure of the value of completed tasks in a project. There are various ways of measuring the value of a task. These include percentage on commencement, percentage on completion, and amount at milestone. G – 8 Glossary PJM Method Handbook

Project Expenses Funds allocated or spent to cover incidental or non-labor costs of a project.

Project Infrastructure The framework for storing, maintaining, and referencing all implementation deliverables and supporting materials including office space, software tools, and standards.

Project Library 1. A system for storing, organizing and controlling all documentation produced or used by the project. 2. The physical location of all deliverables for a single project, plus administrative and support materials. An administrative office to which all members of a team have access.

Project Life-Cycle The organization of a project according to its three major parts: planning, execution, and completion.

Project Management Plan Initially, a definition of the project’s scope, objectives, and approach. The management approach is subsequently refined during project and phase planning with additional detail and supported by necessary standards and procedure.

Project Milestone A significant project event.

Project Objectives The set of criteria for measuring a project’s success.

Project Office The management of the project library for a specific project.

Project Orientation Guide A key project deliverable which establishes the resource policies and procedures for items such as travel and living expenses.

Project Planning The first part of the PJM project life-cycle. The definition of a project with respect to scope, quality, time and cost. Project planning also determines the appropriate organization of resources and responsibilities to execute a project.

Project Schedule A list of tasks to be carried out presented against a timetable for their completion.

Project Timeline A specification of work to be carried out together with the number of resources needed to achieve a target duration; see also PROJECT SCHEDULE.

Project Workbench (PMW) Applied Business Technology tool used to schedule, track, and analyze your project. PMW provides work breakdown structures based on the routes selected in Project Bridge Modeler and provides the capability to manage these plans.

Project Workplan A specification of the work to be performed for a project, expressed as a set of interdependent tasks with project resources allocated over time.

Promotion 1. The state change of an item within its life-cycle representing the successful completion of a quality

requirement such as a test, review or management authorization. Promotion reflects increasing value and confidence in the item, indicating a need for stricter control of changes to the item. 2. The raising of a configuration item to a

higher promotion level; see also DEMOTION.

PMW see PROJECT WORKBENCH. Oracle Method Glossary G – 9


Quality Audit An audit used to assess the adherence of the project team to plans, procedures, and standards.

Quality Review A review used to assess the quality of a deliverable in terms of fitness for purpose and adherence to defined standards and conventions.


Release A baseline issued from the CM Repository for delivery to an a destination. The destination may be internal to the project environment, such as for testing, or external, such as to the client.

Repository A mechanism for storing any information about the definition of a system at any point in its life-cycle. Repository services would typically be provided for extensibility, recovery, integrity, naming standards, and a wide variety of other management functions.

Resource Any persons, equipment, or material needed to perform a task(s).

Resource Category see CONSULTING GRADE LEVEL.

Revenue Income from services labor fees, training fees, licensed product sales and support fees.

Revision The authorized modification to a configuration item.

Risk 1. The potential of an adverse condition occurring on a project which will cause the project to not meet expectations. A risk requires management assessment and a strategy for its mitigation. 2. The logical product of the impact of the risk and the likelihood of it occurring.

Role A classification of staff member used on a project. Examples are: analyst, application developer, system architect; see also RESOURCE.

Role Placeholder A fictitious resource name with a resource category assigned to replace a role; e.g., Analyst 1 – Principal, Analyst 2 – Senior.

Route A variation of a method containing all tasks required in order to deliver a service; a dependency network.


Scope The boundaries of a project expressed in some combination of geography, organization, applications or business functions.

Scope Change A change to project scope. A scope change requires an adjustment to the project workplan, and nearly always impacts project cost, schedule or quality.

Scope Creep The common phenomenon where additional requirements are added after a project has started without

reconsidering the resourcing or timescale of the project. Scope creep arises from the misapprehension that such small additions will not affect the project schedule. G – 10 Glossary PJM Method Handbook

Sign-off Agreement with a client of the successful completion of a project, project phase, or deliverable.

Singly Instantiated Task A task which occurs once, at a specific time, during a project.

Site A uniquely identifiable geographic location or place from which one or more business organizations may be wholly or partly operating.

Stakeholder A person, group, or business unit that has a share or an interest in a particular activity or set of activities.

Standard A set of rules for measuring quality. Usually, standards are defined for products deliverables or deliverable components and processes.

State A recognizable or definable condition that a system or an object can be in at some point in its life-cycle.

State Transition A valid change of a system or an object from one state to another, modeled on a state transition diagram; see also STATE.

Sub-process A process performed entirely within another process.

Successor A task that follows another task and is related to it by a dependency link; see also PREDECESSOR.


Task A unit of work that done in delivering a service. A task is the smallest trackable item on a project plan, and forms the basis for a work breakdown structure. The minimum elapsed time for a task iteration or instantiation should be one day. The maximum should be two weeks; see also WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE.

Task Dependency The relationship between two tasks where the start or end date of the successor task is constrained by the start or end date of the predecessor task.

Task Dependency Network A network of tasks and task dependencies where each node is a task and each link is a task dependency; see also CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) NETWORK.

Task Step A discreet step to be done in executing a task.

Technique A specific approach to performing a task. A methodical means of handling and communicating complex details.

Timebox A project management technique that a fixes the duration and resources of a task, or set of tasks, and forces the scope of the project to be adjusted based on the time available to complete the task(s). The contingency for under-estimation of the work is provided by a prioritized list of features left out if necessary. The contingency for overestimation is provided by a prioritized list of features that should be added in if time allows. Oracle Method Glossary G – 11

Tool Software applications, deliverable templates, or any other utility suggested to facilitate the completion of a particular task.

Top-Down Estimate A high-level work effort estimate. This type of estimate is derived by taking a total project estimate and dividing it among the project’s phases, activities, and tasks.


Uncontrolled Document A document which is produced once for information only, and is not subject to formal approval or change control.

User A person who uses a system to perform a business function.

Utilization The amount of time a staff member books to a project accounting system; see also BILLABLE TILIZATION and NONBILLABLE UTILIZATION.


Variance The difference between a planned and an actual value; for example, budgeted hours vs. actual hours.

Version The rendering of a configuration item which incorporates all of its revisions starting from a given point.

Version Control A mechanism to manage multiple revisions of files, documents, programs, applications, or other items that undergo change.

View A means of accessing a subset of data in a database.



Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) An organization of project tasks into a hierarchy for scheduling and reporting progress.

Work Effort see EFFORT.

Work Estimate see ESTIMATE.

Work Schedule see PROJECT SCHEDULE.